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a b Aurin, Marcus (January 1, 2000). "Chasing the Dragon: The Cultural Metamorphosis of Opium in the United States, 1825–1935". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 14 (3): 414–441. doi: 10.1525/maq.2000.14.3.414. JSTOR 649506. PMID 11036586. Legal opium production is allowed under the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and other international drug treaties, subject to strict supervision by the law enforcement agencies of individual countries. The leading legal production method is the Robertson- Gregory process, whereby the entire poppy, excluding roots and leaves, is mashed and stewed in dilute acid solutions. The alkaloids are then recovered via acid-base extraction and purified. The exact date of its discovery is unknown, but it was described by Wurtz in his Dictionnaire de chimie pure et appliquée published in 1868. [135]

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Albert D. Fraser & David Worth (October 1999). "Experience with a Urine Opiate Screening and Confirmation Cutoff of 2000 mg/ml". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 23 (6): 549–551. doi: 10.1093/jat/23.6.549. PMID 10517566.Extensive textual and pictorial sources also show that poppy cultivation and opium consumption were widespread in Safavid Iran [42] and Mughal India. [43] England [ edit ] The Chinese Diaspora in the West (1800s to 1949) first began to flourish during the 19th century due to famine and political upheaval, as well as rumors of wealth to be had outside of Southeast Asia. Chinese emigrants to cities such as San Francisco, London, and New York City brought with them the Chinese manner of opium smoking, and the social traditions of the opium den. [50] [51] The Indian Diaspora distributed opium-eaters in the same way, and both social groups survived as " lascars" (seamen) and " coolies" (manual laborers). French sailors provided another major group of opium smokers, having gotten the habit while in French Indochina, where the drug was promoted and monopolized by the colonial government as a source of revenue. [52] [53] Among white Europeans, opium was more frequently consumed as laudanum or in patent medicines. Britain's All-India Opium Act of 1878 formalized ethnic restrictions on the use of opium, limiting recreational opium sales to registered Indian opium-eaters and Chinese opium-smokers only and prohibiting its sale to workers from Burma. [54] Likewise, in San Francisco, Chinese immigrants were permitted to smoke opium, so long as they refrained from doing so in the presence of whites. [50] Morphine was first synthesised from opium in 1805 by a German chemist and was advertised as a new wonder medicine that was non-addictive and could even be used for the treatment of opium dependence. About 1850, the hypodermic syringe came into use and at that time people believed that smoking opium, rather than injecting opiates led to dependence. Thousands of soldiers in the American Civil War came home addicted to morphine given to them to ease the pain of their injuries. In 1874, again in Germany, heroin was first made from morphine – again it was advertised as non-addictive, this time as a substitute for morphine.

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William Muir (1875), The opium revenue: Sir William Muir's minute and other extracts from papers published by the Calcutta government; also extracts from parliamentary papers (1sted.), London: The Anglo-Oriental Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade, p.30, Wikidata Q19095804Chandra, Siddharth (2008). "Economic Histories of the Opium Trade". Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. The production methods have not significantly changed since ancient times. Through selective breeding of the Papaver somniferum plant, the content of the phenanthrene alkaloids morphine, codeine, and to a lesser extent thebaine has been greatly increased. In modern times, much of the thebaine, which often serves as the raw material for the synthesis for oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and other semisynthetic opiates, originates from extracting Papaver orientale or Papaver bracteatum. Joyce A. Madancy (April 2004). "The Troublesome Legacy of Commissioner Lin" . Retrieved September 25, 2007.

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Richard Askwith; The Sunday Times (September 13, 1998). "How aspirin turned hero" . Retrieved May 2, 2007. The use of diethyl ether and chloroform for general anesthesia began in 1846–1847, and rapidly displaced the use of opiates and tropane alkaloids from Solanaceae due to their relative safety. [103]a b c d e Brown Richard Harvey (2002). "The Opium Trade And Opium Policies In India, China, Britain, And The United States: Historical Comparisons And Theoretical Interpretations". Asian Journal of Social Science. 30 (3): 623. doi: 10.1163/156853102320945420.

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